Humboldt Penguin Research

A list of scientific journal articles, other publications, proceedings and presentations about this research coordinated by Milwaukee County Zoo staff and Chilean researchers.

For a slide show of the researchers’ work in the wild, including the artificial burrows, click here.

  1. Penguin dispersal: Schlosser, J.A., Dubach, J.M., Garner, T.W.J., Araya, B., Bernal, M., Simeone, A., Smith, K.A., Wallace, R.S.  2009.  Evidence for gene flow differs from observed dispersal patterns in the Humboldt penguin, (Spheniscus humboldti).   Conserv. Genet. 10:4: 839-849
  2. Genetics: Simeone A., Hiriart-Bertrand L., Reyes-Arriagada R., Halpern M., Dubach J., Wallace R.S., Putz K., and Luthi B. 2009. Heterospecific pairing and hybridization between wild Humboldt and Magellanic penguins in Southern Chile. The Condor 111(3): 544-550.
  3. Gender Determination: Wallace, R.S., Dubach J.M., Michaels, M. Keuler, K. et al. 2008. Morphometric determination of gender in adult Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Waterbirds. 31(3):448-453
  4. Breeding: Simeone A., Araya B., Bernal M., Diebold E.N., Grzybowski K., Michaels M., Teare J.A., Wallace R.S., Willis M.J. 2002. Oceanographic and climatic factors influencing breeding and colony attendance patterns of Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in central Chile. Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol. 227: 43-50.
  5. Penguin breeding: Simeone, A., Araya, B., Bernal, M., Diebold, E.N., Grzybowski, K., Michaels, M., Teare, J.A., Wallace, R.S., Willis, M.J.  2000. Breeding and attendance patterns of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at a colony in central Chile.  The Fourth International Penguin Conference, Coquimbo, Chile, pp. 11.
  6. Penguin range: Wallace, R.S., et al. 1999. Movements of Humboldt penguins from a breeding colony in Chile. Waterbirds 22(3): 441-444.
  7. Penguin vitamin levels: Wallace, R.S., et al. 1996. Plasma tocopherol, retinol, and carotenoid concentrations in free-ranging Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in Chile. Zoo Biol. 15: 127-134.
  8. Blood tests on penguins: Wallace, R.S., et al. 1995. Hematology and plasma chemistry values in free-ranging Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in Chile. Zoo Biol. 14(4): 311-316.
  9. Penguin ecology: Schlosser, JA et al.2003 Characterization of microsatellite loci in Humboldt penguin (spheniscus humboldti) and cross-amplification in other penguin species. Molecular Ecology notes 3:62-64 doi:10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00349.x \
  10. Penguin dispersal (presentation): Simeone A, Wallace R, Whittington P. 2006. Dispersal and philopatry in Humboldt penguins at a breeding colony off central Chile Abstracts XXIV International Ornithological Congress. Journal of Ornithology 147:98.
  11. Zoo involvement in research: Wallace, R.S., Araya, B. 2001. Involvement of the Milwaukee County Zoo with Humboldt penguin research in Chile. Zoos & Aquariums: Committing to Conservation, Brevard Zoo, pp. 41-42.
  12. Penguin pair fidelity: Diebold, E.N., Teare, J.A., Grzybowski, K., Michaels, M.G., Wallace, R.S., Willis, M.J. 1998. Preliminary findings on pair fidelity in Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at Algarrobo, Chile. The 3rd Chilean Ornithology Congress in Santiago, Chile 1997 published in: Penguin conservation 1998, 11(1)p. 21.
  13. Penguin nest-site fidelity: Teare, J.A., Diebold, E.N., Grzybowski, K., Michaels, M.G., Wallace, R.S., Willis, M.J.  1998.  Nest-site fidelity in Humboldt Penguins Spheniscus humboldti) at Algarrobo, Chile. The 3rd Chilian Ornithology Congress in Santiago, Chile 1997. Published in: Penguin Conservation 1998, 11(1)pp 22-23.
  14. Disease in wild penguins: Wallace, R.S., Teare, J.A., Michaels, M., Diebold, E., Grzybowski, K., and Willis, M. 1997. Disease surveillance in free-ranging Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in Chile. Proceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 284-285.
  15. Vitamins and penguins: Wallace, R.S., et al. 1991. The effect of dietary vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) on serum status of Humboldt penguins. Proceedings: ninth Dr. Scholl nutrition conference.
  16. The start of the research: Diebold, E.N., Grzybowski, K., Michaels, M.G., Teare, J.A., Wallace, R.S., Willis, M.J. 1994. Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) research in Chile. Published in: Penguin conservation, November, pp 2-3.
  17. Rat predation: Simeone, A., Luna-Jorquera, G. 2012. Estimating rat predation on Humboldt Penguin colonies in north-central Chile. Journal of Ornithology (2012) 153:1079–1085.
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